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Neco civic Education answer

INSTRUCTION: answer four(4) questions in all, two
(2) from each section.
causes of HIV/AIDS
(I) Through semen: Most people get the virus by
having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
(ii) infected needles: Another common way of getting
it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is
infected with HIV.
(iii) infected mother: The virus can also be passed
from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth,
or breastfeeding.
(iv) If tissues or organs from an infected person are
transplanted, the recipient may acquire HIV.
Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
(i) Fever.
(ii) Sore throat.
(iii) Headache.
(iv) Muscle aches and joint pain.
(v) Swollen glands (swollen lymph nodes).
(vi) Skin rash
(vii) Fatigue
Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most
commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced
labor or commercial sexual exploitation for the
i)Poverty: This is a situation where a person fall
short of a level of economic welfare, where a
person lacks the basic human want which are
clothing, food and shelter.
ii) Lack of employment opportunities: Due to the bad
economic situation of some countries that made
some people jobless, some people therefore get
lured and deceived by traffickers because they
want to get out of the country and thereby using
them as slaves and prostitutes in other countries.
iii)Profit: Because of the profits the trafficker wants
to make from doing trafficking business make them
to engage themselves in such evil business all
because of profit.
iv)Illiterates: Illiterates are those who are not able
to read or write, illiteracy has made so many people
to become a victim of trafficking, for instance,
signing on a paper you do not have any knowledge
v)Economic system: Because of poor economic
system of some countries the citizens prefer to live
somewhere else and would not mind to go
anywhere and because of this they become a
vi)Greed: Some people are not satisfied with what
they have, because of the love to earn more than
what they can have they end up falling into the
hands of traffickers.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized
under the custom or law as being a legal member of
a sovereign state or part of a nation.
i) Citizenship by Birth (jus sanguinis). If one or both
of a person's parents are citizens of a given state,
then the person may have the right to be a citizen of
that state as well
ii)Citizenship by Registration
A person can be a citizen of a country through
registration. This mostly occurs to women who
marry foreign nationals. For instance, a Gambian
woman married to a Nigerian may register as a
citizen of Nigeria but she must satisfy certain
conditions such as residing in Nigeria and should
take the oath of allegiance to Nigeria and renounce
her Gambian citizenship.
iii) Citizenship by Naturalization
This is another way through which an individual can
acquire citizenship in a country. Through this
method, the individual must satisfy certain basic
conditions such as in the case of Nigeria, the
individual must have lived in Nigeria for not less
than 15 years, he must have a job, he must be an
honourable person, that is, not a criminal and must
be recommended by a very important person in the
iv)Citizenship by Descent
This is a method of acquiring citizenship of another
country as a result of the fact that his grandparents
are citizens of the country.
Public service is a service which is provided by
government to people
living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through
the public sector) or by financing provision of
1)Lack of Qualified Personnel: Most people in
various public service offices either neglect their
right jobs or have little or no experience about it but
carry out such services due to their search for
greener pasture.
2)Corruption : The effectiveness of the public
service has been slowed down by bribery and
corruption to the extent that public servants fail to
perform their official duties as they look forward to
bribery before carrying out their duties.
3)Bureaucracy : This means the excessive use of
formalities in the public service which may militate
against effectiveness.
4)Tribalism: This has been the yardstick for
choosing who to employ and sack in the Nigerian
public service.
5)Political Instability : Constant and regular change
of top rank office holders in public service brings
about constant instability of rules and regulations.
This constantly leads to the shortcomings in the
public service.
Political Interference : Many Governments in power
do not allow the free flow of duties due to their
undue interference which at most times is only
favorable to
Civil society refers to any non-governmental entity
formed by a group of people with similar interests
who come together to work on a common goal
i)Civil society makes state at all level to be
accountable, responsive and to be more effective.
They help to limit and control the power of the state
ii)It promotes political participation through the
process of educating people about the about their
rights and obligations as democratic citizen and
also encourage them to participate in election.
iii)Building community; engagement and
participation in voluntary associations also has the
potential to strengthen bonds among citizens.
iv)Socialization; civil society contributes to the
formation and practice of democratic attitudes
among citizens. Thus people learn to develop
tolerance, mutual trust and the ability to relate with
v)It can also help to play an important role in
meditating and helping to resolve conflict.
Good Luck!!!!

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