Wednesday, 31 May 2017

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FALALAR YIN SALLAR ASHAM

Ankarbo daga sayyadi Aliyu dan Abi Dalib (RTA) yace
Na tambayi manzon Allah (SAW) acikin Falalar yin sallar Asham Acikin wata Ramadan sai Manzon Allah (SAW) yace
Wanda yayi Asham adare na farko Awatan Ramadan mumini yana fita daga cikin laifinsa kamar yadda mahaifiyarsa ta haifeshi,
Wanda yayi Asham Adarena 2 Allah zai gafartawa iyayansa,
Wanda yayi Asham Adare na 3 Wani Mala'ika zaikira sunansa a karkashin Al'arshi yace Anunka aiyukan Alkhairi kuma agafarta laifukansa,
Wanda yayi Asham Adare na 4 za'a bashi ladan wanda yakaranta Attaura, Injila, zabura, da Alqur'ani,
Wanda yayi Asham Adare na 5 Za'a ladan yayi sallah a makka da Madina,
Wanda yayi Asham Adare na 6 za'a bashi ladan mala'ikun da suke kewaye da Baitul ma'amuri kuma dukkan dutse da marmara zasu nemi agafarta masa laifukansa,
Wanda yayi Asham Adare na 7 kamar yariski Annabi musa ne yataimakeshi akashe Fir'auna da Hamana,
Wanda yayi adare na 8 Allah zaibashi ladan daya bawa Annabi Ibrahim,
Wanda yayi adare na 9 Kamar ya bautawa Allah ne irin wadda Annabi Muhd (SAW)
Yayiwa Allah,
Wanda yayi adare na 10 Allah zai'azurtashi Da Alkhairan duniya da lahira,
Wanda yayi adare na 11 zai fita daga duniya kamar yadda aka haifeshi,
Wanda yayi adare na 12 zaizo ranar Alkiya yana Amintacce
Wanda yayi adare na 13 Allah zaigina masa birni Agidan Aljanna,
Wanda yayi adare na 14 Mala'iku zasuzo suyi masa shaidar yayi sallar Asham baza aimasa hisabiba,
Wanda yayi adare na 15 Mala'iku zasuyi masa salati da madauka Al'arshi da kursiyu,
Wanda yayi adare na 16 Allah zai rubuta sunansa daga masu kubuta daga wuta,
Wanda yayi adare na 17 za'a bashi lada kamarna dukkan Annabawa,
Wanda yayi adare na 18 wani mala'ika zai kiransa yace yakai bawan Allah
Allah ya yarda dakai da mahaifanka,
Wanda yayi adare na 19 Allah zaidaga matsayinsa a Aljanna Firdausi,
Wanda yayi adare na 20 Allah zaibashi ladan shahidai da salihan bayi
Wanda yayi adare na 21 Allah zaigina masa daki a Aljanna da haske,
Wanda yayi adare na 22 zaizo ranar Alkiyama yana Amintacce daga bakin ciki
Wanda yayi adare na 23 Allah zaigina masa gida a Aljanna,
Wanda yayi adare na 24 za'a amsa Addu'o insa guda 24,
Wanda yayi adare na 25 za'a dauke masa azabar kabari,
Wanda yayi adare na 26 za'a taramasa ladan shekara Arba'in,
Wanda yayi adare na 27 zaifice ranar Alkiyama Akan siradi kamar walkiya,
Wanda yayi adare na
28 za'a daga martabarsa sau dubu,
Wanda yayi adare na  29 Allah zaibashi ladan Aikin hajji dubu karbabbu,
Wanda yayi adare na 30 Allah zaice..............


WASSALAM


​BY ABBA YAHAYA ABDULLAHI

ADDU.A YAYIN KIRAN SALLAH.

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Addu’a yayin kiran Sallah :
Wanda ya ji kiran sallah zai fadi dukkan abin da ladanin yake fadi, sai dai idan yace;
ﺣَﻲَّ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟﺼَّﻼَﺓِ، ﺣَﻲَّ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟْﻔَﻼَﺡِ .
Hayya Alas Salah, Hayya Alal Falah.
Ku taho ga Sallah, ku taho ga babban rabo.
Maimakon haka sai shi ya ce:
ﻻ ﺣَـﻮْﻝَ ﻭَﻻ ﻗُـﻮَّﺓَ ﺇِﻻّ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﻪ .
La hawla wala kuwwata illa billah.
Babu daraba, babu karfi sai da Allah.
ﻭَﺃَﻧﺎ ﺃَﺷْـﻬَﺪُ ﺃَﻥْ ﻻَ ﺇِﻟَـﻪَ ﺇِﻻّ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻭَﺣْـﺪَﻩُ ﻻَ ﺷَـﺮﻳﻚَ ﻟَـﻪُ، ﻭَﺃَﻥَّ ﻣﺤَﻤّـﺪﺍً ﻋَﺒْـﺪُﻩُ ﻭَﺭَﺳُـﻮﻟُﻪُ ، ﺭَﺿِﻴـﺖُ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﻪِ ﺭَﺑَّﺎً ، ﻭَﺑِﻤُﺤَﻤَّـﺪٍ ﺭَﺳُـﻮﻻً ﻭَﺑِﺎﻹِﺳْﻼﻡِ ﺩِﻳﻨًﺎ .
Wa-ana ashhadu an la ilaha illal-lahu wahdahu la shareeka lah, wa-anna Muhammadan AAabduhu warasooluh, radeetu billahi rabban wabimuhammadin rasoolan wabil-islami deena.
Ni ina shaidawa cewa babu abin bautawa da gaskiya sai Allah, shi kadai, babu abokin tarayya a gare Shi. Kuma Allah shi ne Ubangiji, kuma Muhammadu shi ne Manzo, kuma Musulunci shi ne addini.
Bayan ya gama amsa kiran sallar, sai ya yi salati ga Annabi, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi.
Sannan ya ce:
ﺍﻟﻠّﻬُـﻢَّ ﺭَﺏَّ ﻫَﺬِﻩِ ﺍﻟﺪّﻋْـﻮَﺓِ ﺍﻟﺘّـﺎﻣَّﺔِ ﻭَﺍﻟﺼّﻼﺓِ ﺍﻟﻘَـﺎﺋِﻤَﺔ ﺁﺕِ ﻣﺤَـﻤَّﺪﺍً ﺍﻟﻮَﺳﻴـﻠﺔَ ﻭَﺍﻟْﻔَﻀـﻴﻠَﺔ ﻭَﺍﺑْﻌَـﺜْﻪُ ﻣَﻘـﺎﻣًـﺎ ﻣَﺤْـﻤُﻮﺩﺍً ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻱ ﻭَﻋَـﺪْﺗَﻪُ ﺇِﻧَّـﻚَ ﻻ ﺗُـﺨْﻠِﻒُ ﺍﻟْﻤِﻴـﻌَﺎﺩَ .
Allahumma rabba hathihid-da'watit-tammah, wassalatil-ka-imah ati Muhammadan alwaseelata wal-fadeelah, waba'ath-hu makaman mahmoodan allazee wa'adtahu, innaka la tukhliful-mee'ad.
Ya Allah! Ubangijin wannan kira kammalalle, da wannan sallar da za a tsayar da ita. Ka ba wa Muhammadu wasila (matsayin kusanci a cikin Aljanna), da matsayin fifiko, kuma ka tashe mu a matsayi abin godewa, wannan wanda Ka yi masa alkawarinsa. Lallai kai ba ka saba alkawari.
Sannan ya yiwa kansa addu'a tsakanin kiran sallah da tayar da ikama, domin addu'a a wannan lokaci ba a kin karbarta

Sunday, 28 May 2017

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Pharmacology

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Saturday, 27 May 2017

RAMADAN KAREEM

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WASU NASSOSHI DAGA QUR'ANI DA SUNNAH AKAN FALALAR AZUMI:

1- قال الله تعالى: (شهر رمضان الذي أنزل فيه القرآن) الآية[سورة البقرة].

Allaah madaukakin Sarki Yana cewa: (Watan Ramãdan wanda a cikin Sa aka saukar da Al -QUR'ÃNI).

2-  عن أبي أمامة رضي الله عنه أنه قال: يا رسول الله، مرني بأمر ينفعني الله به، قال: (عليك بالصوم فإنه لا مثل له) رواه النسائي وهو حديث ثابت.

Daga Abu-Umãmatal Bãhiliy (r.a) yace: Ya Manzon Allaah ka umurceni da wani al'amari wanda Allaah zai amfaneni wurin Allaah, Sai Manzon Allaah(saw) Yace: (Ka lizimci azumi, saboda babu irinshi).
3- عن سهل بن سعد رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال: (إن في الجنة بابا يقال له الريَّان، يدخل منه الصائمون يوم القيامة، لا يدخل منه أحد غيرهم، يقال: أين الصائمون؟ فيقومون، لا يدخل منه أحد غيرهم، فإذا دخلوا أغلق، فلم يدخل منه أحد) متفق عليه.

Daga Sahl bn Sa'ad (r.a) Lallai Annabi (saw) Yace: (A Aljannah akwai kofa da ake kiran shi AR-RAYYÃN, masu azumi zasu shiga ta cikin shi ranar Al- Qiyãmah, babu wanda zai shiga ta kofar sai su. Za'a ce ina masu azumi? Sai su mi'ke, babu wadanda zasu shiga ta wannan kofar sai su, idan suka shiga sai a kulle, saboda haka babu wanda zai sake shiga bayan su).

4-  قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (يا معشر الشباب! من استطاع منكم الباءة فليتزوج، فإنه أغض للبصر وأحصن للفرج، ومن لم يستطع فعليه بالصوم فإنه له وجاء) متفق عليه.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Yaku matasa! Wanda yake da hali yayi aure, saboda shi yafi kame ido (gani) dakuma kiyaye farji, wanda kuma bashida halin aure to yayi azumi; domin azumi kamar dandaqa ne (yana rage sha'awa).

5- قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (الصوم جُنَّة يَستجن بها العبد من النار) رواه أحمد وهو ثابت أيضا.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Azumi garkuwa ne da bawa ke kare kanshi daga shiga wuta).

6- عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (قال الله تعالى: كل عمل ابن آدم له إلا الصيام، فإنه لي وأنا أجزي به )، وفي رواية لمسلم: (كل عمل ابن آدم يضاعف، الحسنة بعشر أمثالها إلى سبعمائة ضعف، قال الله عز وجل: إلا الصوم، فإنه لي وأنا أجزي به، يدع شهوته وطعامه من أجلي) متفق عليه.

Daga Abū Harairah (r.a) yace: Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Allaah SWT Yace: Kowane aiki na dan adam ne banda azumi, domin azumi nawa ne kuma NI zan bada sakamakon shi), A riwayar Muslim kuwa Yace: (Ana ninka kowane aiki na dan adam,  kowane lada za'a ninka shi sau goma har zuwa ninki ďari bakwai, sai Allaah Yace: sai azumi, domin shi nawa ne kuma NI ne zanyi sakayya akansa, dan adam yakan bar sha'awar shi da  abincin shi da saboda NI).

7-  قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (الصيام والقرآن يشفعان للعبد يوم القيامة، يقول الصيام: أي رب منعته الطعام والشهوات بالنهار فشفعني فيه، ويقول القرآن: منعته النوم بالليل فشفعني فيه، قال: فيُشَفَّعان). رواه أحمد وهو حديث ثابت.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Azumi da Al - Qura'ni zasu ceci bawa ranar Al-Qiyãmah, azumi zaice: Ya Ubangiji na hanashi abinci da abubuwan sha'awa da rana Kabani ceton shi, shi kuma Qur'ani zaice: Na hanashi bacci da dare dan haka kabani ceton shi, sai Manzon Allaah Yace: Sai abasu ceton su).

8- قال رسول الله صلى عليه وآله وسلم: (من صام يومًا في سبيل الله باعد الله وجهه عن النار سبعين خريفا) متفق عليه.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Duk wanda ya azumci rana ďaya dan Allaah, Allaah Zai nisantar da fuskar shi daga wuta tsawon shekaru saba'in).

9-  قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (للصائم فرحتان: فرحة عند فطره، وفرحة عند لقاء ربه، ولخلوف فم الصائم أطيب عند للله من ريح المسك) متفق عليه.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Mai azumi yanada farin ciki biyu: Farin ciki sanda zaiyi buďa baki, da Farin ciki lokacin haďuwa da Ubangijin shi, Tabbas! Bashi (wari) na bakin mai azumi yafi 'kanshin almiski kyawu da daďi a wurin Allaah).

10-  قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (فتنة الرجل في أهله، وماله، وجاره تٌكِّفرها: الصلاة، والصيام والصدقة) رواه البخاري.

Manzon Allaah (saw) Yace: (Fitinar mutum a iyalinshi, da dukiyarshi, da ma'kwabcinshi; Sallaah da Azumi da Sadaqah suna kankare su).

11- عن زيد بن خالد الجهني رضي الله عنه  قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم -: (من فطر صائمًا كان له مثل أجره غير أنه لا ينقص من أجر الصائم شيئًا) رواه الترمذي وابن ماجه وهو ثابت.

Daga Zayd bn Khalid Al-Juhaniy (r.a) Yace: (Duk wanda yacida mai azumi Allaah zaibashi kwatankwacin ladan shi batareda an rage ko kadan daga ladan mai azumin ba).

12- عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال: (ثلاثة لا تردُّ دعوتهم: الإمام العادل، والصائم حتى يفطر، ودعوة المظلوم) رواه الترمذي وابن ماجه وهو حديث ثابت أيضا.

Daga Abu Hurairah (r.a) Annabi (saw) Yace: (Mutane uku ba'a mayar da addu'ar su: Jagora adili, Mai azumi har zuwa buďa bakin sa, dakuma addu'ar wanda aka zalunta).

Allaah Ya amshi ibadojin mu.

Ďan'uwanku:   A Y A

LABARAN WASA

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Za a rufe saman babban filin wasan kwallon kafa na Wales don yin wasan karshe na gasar Zakarun turai ta 2017 da za a yi a birnin Cardiff saboda dalilai na tsaro.
Sama da 'yan kallo 170,000 ne ake sa ran za su je birnin domin kallon karon-batta tsakanin manyan kungiyoyin Juventus da Real Madrid ranar uku ga watan Yuni.
Shi ne zai kasance wasan karshe na farko da aka buga cikin rufaffen filin wasa.
Hukumar kwallon kafa ta Wales dai ta ce tabbatar da tsaro shi ne "babban abin da ke gabanta".
An bayar da shawarar rufe saman filin wasan ne saboda fargabar kai hari da jirgi maras matuki a kan abin da aka bayyana da wasa mafi girma tsakanin kungiyoyin kwallon kafa a duniya.
Bayan tattaunawa da masu ruwa da tsaki, hukumar ta ce ta dauki matakin rufe saman filin wasan bayan yin la'akari da "bukatar hakan daga hukumomi".
Za kuma a rufe saman filin wasan a lokacin da kungiyoyin za su yi atisaye a filin wasan ranar Juma'a biyu ga watan Yuni.

LABARAI

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Wata yar jarida, Katrin Gaensles ta kai ziyara inda aka ajiye makaman da sojin Biafra sukayi amfani da shi.
Yar jaridan yar kasar Jamus tayi yawo cikin garin Owerri, jihar Imo inda dan uwan Nnamdi Kanu , Prince Meme ya nuna mata makaman.
Dan uwan Nnamdi Kanu ya bayyana makaman da injoniyoyin Biafra suka kera
Kafin zuwa Imo, Gaensles ta kai ziyara ga shugaban kungiyar Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB, a gidansa na Afara Ukwu jihar Abiya.

RAMADAN KAREEM

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Addu'a Idan Mai Azumi Zai Buda Baki
ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ، وَابْتَلَّتِ العُرُوقِ، وَثَبَتَ اْلأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.
Zahabaz-zama-o wabtallatil-'urooq, wathabatal- ajru in shaal-lah.

Kishirwa ta tafi, an yayyafawa jijiyoyi ruwa, kuma lada ya tabbata in Allah Ya so.

Abdullahi bn Amr bn Al-As ya ce Manzon Allah, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi, ya ce: "Mai azumi yana da addu'a da ba a mayar da ita idan ya zo bude baki". Abdullahi bn Amr ya kasance idan ya zo buda baki sai ya ce;
اللّهُمَّ  إِنَّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِرَحْمَتِكَ الّتي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ، أَنْ تَغْفِرَ لِي .
Allahumma inne as-aluka birahmatikal-latee wasi'at kulla shay'i, an taghfira lee.

Ya Allah! Ina rokon Ka saboda Rahamarka da ta yalwaci komai, Ka gafarta mini.

Friday, 26 May 2017

NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Functions Nervous System

The nervous system has two main parts; one is the central nervous system and the other is the
peripheral nervous system.

The Brain and the Spinal Cord are the two parts that composed the central nervous system, while the
peripheral nervous system is consist of all the parts of the entire nervous system but excluding the spinal cord and the brain.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Physiology of the Respiratory System

  • Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. The respiratory system uses both a negative pressure system and the contraction of muscles to achieve pulmonary ventilation. The negative pressure system of the respiratory system involves the establishment of a negative pressure gradient between the alveoli and the external atmosphere. The pleural membrane seals the lungs and maintains the lungs at a pressure slightly below that of the atmosphere when the lungs are at rest. This results in air following the pressure gradient and passively filling the lungs at rest. As the lungs fill with air, the pressure within the lungs rises until it matches the atmospheric pressure.
  • External Respiration
External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air filling the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries surrounding the walls of the alveoli. Air entering the lungs from the atmosphere has a higher partial pressure of oxygen and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide than does the blood in the capillaries. The difference in partial pressures causes the gases to diffuse passively along their pressure gradients from high to low pressure through the simple squamous epithelium lining of the alveoli. The net result of external respiration is the movement of oxygen from the air into the blood and the movement of carbon dioxide from the blood into the air.
  • Internal Respiration
Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood in capillaries and the tissues of the body. Capillary blood has a higher partial pressure of oxygen and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide than the tissues through which it passes. The difference in partial pressures leads to the diffusion of gases along their pressure gradients from high to low pressure through the endothelium lining of the capillaries. The net result of internal respiration is the diffusion of oxygen into the tissues and the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the blood.
  • Transportation of Gases
The 2 major respiratory gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, are transported through the body in the blood. Blood plasma has the ability to transport some dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, but most of the gases transported in the blood are bonded to transport molecules. Hemoglobin is an important transport molecule found in red blood cells that carries almost 99% of the oxygen in the blood. Hemoglobin can also carry a small amount of carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.
  • Homeostatic Control of Respiration
Under normal resting conditions, the body maintains a quiet breathing rate and depth called eupnea. Eupnea is maintained until the body’s demand for oxygen and production of carbon dioxide rises due to greater exertion. Autonomic chemoreceptors in the body monitor the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and send signals to the respiratory center of the brain stem.

LUNGS DISEASES

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Lung Diseases Affecting the Interstitium

The interstitium is the microscopically thin, delicate lining between the lungs' air sacs (alveoli). Tiny blood vessels run through the interstitium and allow gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood. Various lung diseases affect the interstitium:


  • Interstitial lung disease (ILD): A broad collection of lung conditions affecting the interstitium. Sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and autoimmune disease are among the many types of ILD.
  • Pneumonias and pulmonary edemas can also affect the interstitium.

Thursday, 25 May 2017

LUNGS DISEASES

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Lung Diseases Affecting the Air Sacs (Alveoli)

The airways eventually branch into tiny tubes (bronchioles) that dead-end into clusters of air sacs called alveoli. These air sacs make up most of the lung tissue. Lung diseases affecting the alveoli include:
  • Pneumonia: An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.
  • Tuberculosis: A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Emphysema results from damage to the fragile connections between alveoli. Smoking is the usual cause. (Emphysema also limits airflow, affecting the airways as well.)
  • Pulmonary edema: Fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of the lung into the air sacs and the surrounding area. One form is caused by heart failure and back pressure in the lungs' blood vessels; in another form, direct injury to the lung causes the leak of fluid.
  • Lung cancer has many forms, and may develop in any part of the lungs. Most often this is in the main part of the lung, in or near the air sacs. The type, location, and spread of lung cancer determines the treatment options.



  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Severe, sudden injury to the lungs caused by a serious illness. Life support with mechanical ventilation is usually needed to survive until the lungs recover.
  • Pneumoconiosis: A category of conditions caused by the inhalation of a substance that injures the lungs. Examples include black lung disease from inhaled coal dust and asbestosis from inhaled asbestos dust.

ASTHMA

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Asthma

In asthma, periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe in and, especially, out. Attacks of asthma can betriggered by airborne irritants such as chemical fumes and cigarette smokeairborne particles to which the patient isallergic.Emphysema

In this disorder, the delicate walls of the alveoli break down, reducing the gas-exchange area of the lungs. The condition develops slowly and is seldom a direct cause of death. However, the gradual loss of gas-exchange area forces the heart to pump ever-larger volumes of blood to the lungs in order to satisfy the body's needs. The added strain can lead to heart failure.



The immediate cause of emphysema seems to be the release of proteolytic enzymes as part of the inflammatory process that follows irritation of the lungs. Most people avoid this kind of damage during infections, etc. by producing an enzyme inhibitor (a serpin) called alpha-1 antitrypsin. Those rare people who inherit two defective genes for alpha-1 antitrypsin are particularly susceptible to developing emphysema.

DISEASES OF THE LUNGS

Pneumonia is an infection of the alveoli. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae) and viruses. Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. If enough alveoli are affected, the patient may need supplemental oxygen.

Asthma

In asthma, periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe in and, especially, out. Attacks of asthma can be
  • triggered by airborne irritants such as chemical fumes and cigarette smoke
  • airborne particles to which the patient isallergic.
Emphysema

In this disorder, the delicate walls of the alveoli break down, reducing the gas-exchange area of the lungs. The condition develops slowly and is seldom a direct cause of death. However, the gradual loss of gas-exchange area forces the heart to pump ever-larger volumes of blood to the lungs in order to satisfy the body's needs. The added strain can lead to heart failure.

Wednesday, 24 May 2017

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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The Diaphragm's Role in Breathing

Inhalation and exhalation are the processes by which the body brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The breathing process is aided by a large dome-shaped muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm.

When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts downward, creating a vacuum that causes a rush of fresh air into the lungs.
The opposite occurs with exhalation, where the diaphragm relaxes upwards, pushing on the lungs, allowing them to deflate.

Clearing the Air

The respiratory system has built-in methods to prevent harmful substances in the air from entering the lungs.
Small hairs in your nose, called cilia, help filter out large particles. Cilia are also found along your air passages and move in a sweeping motion to keep the air passages clean. But if harmful substances, such as cigarette smoke, are inhaled, the cilia stop functioning properly, causing health problems like bronchitis.
Mucus produced by cells in the trachea and bronchial tubes keeps air passages moist and aids in stopping dust, bacteria and viruses, allergy-causing substances, and other substances from entering the lungs.
Impurities that do reach the deeper parts of the lungs can be moved up via mucous and coughed out or swallowed.if 

HOW THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK

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You usually don't even notice it, but twelve to twenty times per minute, day after day, you breathe -- thanks to your body's respiratory system. Your lungs expand and contract, supplying life-sustaining oxygen to your body and removing from it, a waste product called carbon dioxide.

The Diaphragm's Role in Breathing

Inhalation and exhalation are the processes by which the body brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The breathing process is aided by a large dome-shaped muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm.

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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The function of the human respiratory system is to transport air into the lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream. Its also receives waste Carbon Dioxide from the blood and exhales it.

What is the Respiratory System?

The respiratory system consists of the following parts, divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracts:

Parts of the Upper Respiratory Tract

  • Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The function of this part of the system is to warm, filter and moisten the incoming air
  • Pharynx: Here the throat divides into the trachea (wind pipe) and oesophagus (food pipe). There is also a small flap of cartilage called the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea
  • Larynx: This is also known as the voice box as it is where sound is generated. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Parts of the Lower Respiratory Tract :


  • Trachea: Also known as the windpipe this is the tube which carries air from the throat into the lungs. It ranges from 20-25mm in diameter and 10-16cm in length. The inner membrane of the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles of dust which we can then remove through coughing. The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage at the front and side which help protect the trachea and keep it open. They are not complete circles due to the position of the oesophagus immediately behind the trachea and the need for the trachea to partially collapse to allow the expansion of the oesophagus when swallowing large pieces of food.

  • Bronchioles: Tertiary bronchi continue to divide and become bronchioles, very narrow tubes, less than 1 millimeter in diameter. There is no cartilage within the bronchioles and they lead to alveolar sacs.
  • Alveoli: Individual hollow cavities contained within alveolar sacs (or ducts). Alveoli have very thin walls which permit the exchange of gases Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. They are surrounded by a network of capillaries, into which the inspired gases pass. There are approximately 3 million alveoli within an average adult lung.
  • Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a broad band of muscle which sits underneath the lungs, attaching to the lower ribs, sternum and lumbar spine and forming the base of the thoracic cavity.
  • Bronchi: The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering the left and one entering the right lung. The left bronchi is narrower, longer and more horizontal than the right. Irregular rings of cartilage surround the bronchi, whose walls also consist of smooth muscle. Once inside the lung the bronchi split several ways, forming tertiary bronchi.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Remember, that Respiration = Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide.



The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood.Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen then passes through the larynx (where speech sounds are produced) and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. 

The pathway

  • Air enters the nostrils
  • passes through the nasopharynx,
  • the oral pharynx
  • through the glottis
  • into the trachea
  • into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebranches into
  • bronchioles, each of which terminates in a cluster of

Braething

In mammals, the diaphragm divides the body cavity into the


  • abdominal cavity, which contains the viscera (e.g., stomach and intestines) and the
  • thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs.
The inner surface of the thoracic cavity and the outer surface of the lungs are lined with pleural membranes which adhere to each other. If air is introduced between them, the adhesion is broken and the natural elasticity of the lung causes it to collapse. This can occur from trauma. And it is sometimes induced deliberately to allow the lung to rest. In either case, reinflation occurs as the air is gradually absorbed by the tissues.

Central Control Of Breathing

The rate of cellular respiration (and hence oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) varies with level of activity. Vigorous exercise can increase by 20–25 times the demand of the tissues for oxygen. This is met by increasing the rate and depth of breathing.
It is a rising concentration of carbon dioxide — not a declining concentration of oxygen — that plays the major role in regulating the ventilation of the lungs. Certain cells in the medulla oblongata are very sensitive to a drop in pH. As the CO2 content of the blood rises above normal levels, the pH drops
[CO2 + H2O → HCO3 + H+],
and the medulla oblongata responds by increasing the number and rate of nerve impulses that control the action of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm. This produces an increase in the rate of lung ventilation, which quickly brings the CO2concentration of the alveolar air, and then of the blood, back to normal levels.

Local Control Of Breathing

The smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchioles is very sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide. A rising level of CO2 causes the bronchioles to dilate. This lowers the resistance in the airways and thus increases the flow of air in and out.
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Sunday, 21 May 2017

HEALTH BENEFITS OF PINEAPPLE

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Health benefits of Pineapple:
Fresh pineapple is low in calories. Nonetheless, ii is a storehouse of several unique health promoting compounds, minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health.
100 g fruit provides just about 50 calories equivalent to that of apples. Its flesh contains no saturated fats or cholesterol; however, it is rich source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber like pectin.
Pineapple fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain that digests food by breaking down protein. Bromelain also has anti-inflammatory, anti-clotting and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown that consumption of pineapple regularly helps fight against arthritis, indigestion and worm infestation.
Fresh pineapple is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin; vitamin C. 100 g fruit contains 47.8 or 80% of this vitamin. Vitamin C is required for the collagen synthesis in the body. Collagen is the main structural protein in the body required for maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones. Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body protect from scurvy; develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
It also contains small amount Vitamin A (provides 58 IU per 100 g) and beta-carotene levels. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties. Vitamin A is also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes, skin and essential for vision. Studies have suggested that consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps the human body to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
In addition, this fruit is rich in B-complex group of vitamins like folates, thiamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin and minerals like copper, manganese and potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Copper is a helpful cofactor for red blood cell synthesis. Manganese is a co-factor for the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is a very powerful free radical scavenger.

Saturday, 20 May 2017

CHECK 2017 UTME RESULTS JAMB

LYME DISEASE

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Lyme disease is an infectious disease. It is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans via a tick bite from an infected black-legged or deer tick. The tick becomes infected after feeding on infected deer or mice.
A tick has to be present on the skin for 24 to 48 hours to transmit the infection. Most people with Lyme disease have no memory of a tick bite.
Lyme disease was first reported in the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut in 1975. It’s the most common tick-borne illness in the Pacific Northwest, Northeast, and Northern Midwest United States and in Europe. People who live or spend time in wooded areas are more likely to get this illness. So are people with domesticated animals that are let out in wooded areas

Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease occurs in three stages: early localized, early disseminated, and late disseminated. Symptoms depend on which stage the disease is in.

Stage 1: Early Localized Disease

Symptoms of Lyme disease start one to two weeks after the tick bite. One of the earliest signs is a “bull’s eye” rash. This is a sign that bacteria are multiplying in the blood stream. The rash occurs at the site of the tick bite as a central red spot surrounded by a clear spot with an area of redness at the edge. It may be warm to touch, but isn’t painful and doesn’t itch.
This rash will disappear after four weeks. The formal name for this rash is erythema migrans. Erythema migrans is said to be characteristic of Lyme disease. However, many people don’t have this symptom. Some people have a rash that is solid red. On people with dark complexions, the rash may resemble a bruise.

Stage 2: Early Disseminated Lyme Disease

Early disseminated Lyme disease occurs several weeks after the tick bite. Bacteria are beginning to spread throughout the body. This stage is characterized by flu-like symptoms, such as:
  • chills
  • fever
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • sore throat
  • vision changes
  • fatigue
  • muscle aches
  • headaches
There is a general feeling of not being well in stage 2. A rash may appear in areas other than the tick bite. Neurological signs such as numbness, tingling, and Bell’s palsy can also occur. This stage of Lyme disease can be complicated by meningitis and cardiac conduction disturbances. The symptoms of stages 1 and 2 can overlap.

How Lyme Disease Is Treated

Lyme disease is best treated in the early stages. Early treatment is a simple 14 to 21 day course of oral antibiotics. This can eliminate all traces of infection. Medications used to treat Lyme disease are:
  • doxycycline - for adults and children older than eight years old
  • cefuroxime and amoxicillin - to treat adults, younger children, and women who are nursing or breast feeding
Persistent Lyme disease is treated with intravenous antibiotics for a period of 14 to 21 days. That eliminates infection. However, improvement of symptoms occurs more slowly.
It’s unknown why symptoms like joint pain continue after the bacteria have been destroyed. Some doctors believe that persistent symptoms occur in people who are prone to autoimmune disease.

Friday, 19 May 2017

PEMPHIGOID

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Pemphigoid is a rare autoimmune disorder that can develop at any age, but that most often affects the elderly. Pemphigoid is caused by a malfunction of the immune system and results in skin rashes and blistering on the legs, arms, and abdomen. Pemphigoid can also cause blistering on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, and vagina, and can occur during pregnancy in some women. There is no cure for pemphigoid, but there are many treatment options

Causes and Risk Factors

Pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system, which normally protects you from infection, begins to attack your healthy tissues. In the case of pemphigoid, your immune system creates antibodies to attack the tissue just below your outer layer of skin. This causes the layers of skin to separate and results in painful blistering. Why the immune system reacts this way in patients with pemphigoid is not fully understood.
In many cases, there is no specific trigger for pemphigoid. In some instances, however, it may be caused by certain medications, radiation therapy, or ultraviolet light therapy. People with other autoimmune disorders may be at a higher risk for developing pemphigoid. It is much more common in the elderly than in any other group.

Symptoms of Pemphigoid

The most common symptom of pemphigoid is blistering that occurs on the arms, legs, abdomen, and mucous membranes. Hives and itching are also common. The blisters have certain characteristics, regardless of where on the body they form:
  • they are often preceded by a red rash
  • they are large and filled with fluid that is usually clear, but may contain some blood they are thick and do not rupture easily
  • the skin around the blisters may appear normal or slightly red or dark
  • ruptured blisters are usually sensitive and painful

Treatments for Pemphigoid

Pemphigoid cannot be cured, but treatments are usually very successful at relieving symptoms. Corticosteroids, either in pill or topical form, will likely be the first treatment your doctor prescribes. These medications reduce inflammation and can help to heal the blisters and relieve itching. However, they can also cause serious side effects, especially from long-term use, so your doctor will take you off of the corticosteroids after the blistering clears up.
Another treatment option is to take medication that suppresses your immune system, often in conjunction with the corticosteroids. Immunosuppressants help, but they also put you at risk for other infections. Certain antibiotics, such as tetracycline, may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation and infection.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF TANGERINES

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Health benefits of Tangerines:
As in oranges, Tangerines are very low (53 calories/100 g) in calories. Nevertheless, they are valuable sources of flavonoid anti-oxidants like naringenin, naringin, hesperetin, vitamin A, carotenes, xanthins and luteins; in fact, several times higher than in the oranges.
In addition, the citrus fruits are very rich sources of vitamin-C (ascorbic acid), a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin-C is one of the powerful natural anti-oxidant, which has many essential roles like collagen synthesis, wound healing, anti-viral, anti-cancer activity, and help prevent from neuro-degenerative diseases, arthritis, and cold/fever...etc., by removing oxidant-free radicals from the body. Vitamin C helps absorb iron in the food by reducing ferrous form of the iron elements to ferric form in the gut.
Further, they contain natural soluble and insoluble fiber like hemi-cellulose, pectin...etc., which prevents cholesterol absorption in the gut. Adequate fiber in the food aids in smooth bowel movements by acting as a laxative.
Citrus fruits, as such, have long been valued for their wholesome nutritious and antioxidant properties. It is scientifically established that citrus fruits, especially oranges, by virtue of their richness in vitamins and minerals, have many proven health benefits. Moreover, it is now beginning to be appreciated that the other biologically active, non-nutrient compounds found in citrus fruits such as phyto-chemical antioxidants; soluble and insoluble dietary fiber is helpful in reduction in the risk for cancers, many chronic diseases like arthritis, and from obesity and coronary heart diseases

CLINICAL CASES

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MUSHA DARIYA

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Thursday, 18 May 2017

MUSHA DARIYA

ABIN MAMAKYYY!!!!
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FIFTH DISEASES

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Fifth disease is caused by a virus that often results in a red rash on the arms, legs, and cheeks. For this reason, it is also known as “slapped cheek disease.” It is fairly common and mild in most children, but it can be more severe for pregnant women or anyone with a compromised immune system.
Most doctors advise their patients to wait out the symptoms because currently there is no medication that will shorten the course of the disease. However, patients with weakened immune systems may need to be monitored until the symptoms disappear.

What Causes Fifth Disease?

Fifth disease is caused by a virus, called parvovirus B19, which tends to spread among children in elementary school. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring, but it can spread at any time and among people of any age.
Many adults have antibodies that prevent them from developing fifth disease because of previous exposure during childhood. However, when individuals do become infected as adults, the symptoms can be severe. When pregnant women get fifth disease, there are serious risks for the unborn baby.
For children with healthy immune systems, fifth disease is a common, mild illness that rarely presents lasting consequences.

What Are the Symptoms of Fifth Disease?

The first symptoms of fifth disease are very general. They often include the following:
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • low-grade fever
  • sore throat
  • nausea
After a few days of suffering with these symptoms, most young patients develop a red rash that first appears on the cheeks. The rash often spreads to the arms, legs, and trunk of the body within a few days. The rash may last for weeks, but usually by the time you see it you are no longer contagious.
The rash is more likely to appear in children than in adults with fifth disease. In fact, the main symptom adults usually experience is joint pain. The joint pain can last for several weeks and is usually most prominent in the wrists, ankles, and knees.

How Is Fifth Disease Treated?

For most healthy patients, no treatment is necessary. If your joints hurt or you have a headache or fever, you may be advised to take acetaminophen (Tylenol) as needed to relieve these symptoms. Otherwise, you will just need to wait for your body to fight off the virus, which usually takes one to three weeks. You can help the process along by drinking a lot of fluids and getting extra rest. Children can often return to school once the red rash appears since they are no longer contagious.

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Pharmacology

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HEALTH BENEFITS OF OLIVES

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Health benefits of Olives:
Traditionally, olives have been viewed as very healthy food. The fruit provides calories; contain significant amounts of plant-derived anti-oxidants, minerals, phyto-sterols, and vitamins.
Olives are a moderate source of calories; 100 g of fruits provide just 115 calories. Their calorie content basically comes from fats. Nonetheless, the fruit composes healthy fat in the form of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) like oleic acid (18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) that help lower LDL or "bad cholesterol" and increase HDL or "good cholesterol" in the blood. Research studies suggest that Mediterranean diet, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids help to prevent coronary artery disease and strokes by favoring healthy blood lipid profile.
Olive fruit contains tyrosol phenolic compounds such as oleuropein and oleocanthal. These compounds are responsible for its bitter and pungent taste. Oleocanthal, oleurpein, and its derivative hydroxytyrosol are nature’s most powerful anti-oxidants. Together with vitamin E and carotenoids, they play a vital role fighting against cancer, inflammation, coronary artery disease, degenerative nerve diseases, diabetes…etc.
Studies suggest that oleocanthal has ibuprofen (NSAID) like ant-inflammatory activities. Mediterranean diet that uses olive and its oil may be responsible in part for the lower incidences of coronary artery disease.
Olive contains a good amount of vitamin E. 100 g cured, and canned fruits provide 1.65 mg (11% of RDA) of a-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant, required for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucus membranes and skin by protecting it from harmful oxygen-free radicals.
In addition, the fruits contain good amounts of minerals like calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Further, they are small sources of B-complex vitamins such as niacin, choline, and pantothenic acid.
Oil expressed from these fruits is recognized as one of the healthiest edible oils since it contains less saturated fat, and composes linoleic (omega-6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) essential fatty acids at the recommended 8:1 ratio.
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KIDNEY FAILURE

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Kidney Failure


Kidney Disease Quiz Kidney Stone

Kidney failure factsWhat are the kidneys?What are the kidneys? (Continued)What causes kidney failure?What causes kidney failure? (Continued)What are the signs and symptoms of kidney failure?Does kidney failure cause pain?How is kidney failure diagnosed?What is the treatment for kidney failure?DietMedicationsDialysis and HemodialysisPeritoneal dialysisKidney transplantationWhat is the prognosis for someone with kidney failure?



Kidneys are the organs that filter waste products from the blood. They are also involved in regulating blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and red blood cell production in the body.Symptoms of kidney failure are due to the build-up of waste products and excess fluid in the body that may cause weakness, shortness of breath, lethargy, swelling, and confusion. Inability to remove potassium from the bloodstream may lead to abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death. Initially kidney failure may cause no symptoms.There are numerous causes of kidney failure, and treatment of the underlying disease may be the first step in correcting the kidney abnormality.Some causes of kidney failure are treatable and the kidney function may return to normal. Unfortunately, kidney failure may be progressive in other situations and may be irreversible.The diagnosis of kidney failure usually is made by blood tests measuring BUN, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).Treatment of the underlying cause of kidney failure may return kidney function to normal. Lifelong efforts to control blood pressure and diabetes may be the best way to prevent chronic kidney disease and its progression to kidney failure. As we age kidney function gradually decreases over time.If the kidneys fail completely, the only treatment options available may be dialysis or transplant.

ADHD DISEASES

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ADHD or Something Else?

If you are often restless and have trouble concentrating, don't jump to the conclusion that you have ADHD. These symptoms are also common in other conditions. Poor concentration is a classic sign of depression. Restlessness or anxiety could indicate an overactive thyroid or anxiety disorder. Your health care provider will investigate whether these conditions could be causing your symptoms instead of -- or in addition to -- ADHD.

Tuesday, 16 May 2017

CHERRY ANGIOMA DISEASES

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What Are Cherry Angiomas?

Cherry angiomas are common skin growths that can grow on most areas of your body. They are also known as senile angiomas or Campbell de Morgan spots, and they are usually found on people age 30 and older. The broken blood vessels inside a cherry angioma give them a reddish appearance.
This type of skin growth is typically not a cause for concern unless it bleeds often or changes in size, shape, or color. Talk to your doctor if you notice any changes in appearance or bleeding; these could be symptoms of skin cancer.

What Do They Look Like?

A cherry angioma is bright red, of a circular or oval shape, and small—ranging in size from a pinpoint to one-fourth of an inch in diameter. Some cherry angiomas appear smooth and even with your skin, while others appear slightly raised. They most often grow on the torso, arms, and shoulders.
Bleeding can occur if the angioma is scratched, rubbed, or cut open.

What Causes Cherry Angiomas?

The exact cause of cherry angiomas is unknown, but there may be a genetic factor that makes certain people more likely to get them. They’ve also been linked to pregnancy, exposure to chemicals, and climate. There also appears to be a link between cherry angiomas and age. They often begin to appear when individuals reach age 30, and seem to increase in size and number with age.

When to Seek Medical Treatment for Cherry Angiomas

If you notice any changes in the way a cherry angioma looks, schedule an appointment with your dermatologist. It is important to have any type of lesion or growth looked at when its appearance changes so that your doctor can rule out serious conditions, such as skin cancer.
Your doctor may decide to do a biopsy, which involves removing and examining a small sample of the angioma, to diagnose or rule out other serious conditions.

How Are Cherry Angiomas Treated?

You probably won’t need to have the cherry angioma treated, but you do have options if you want it removed for cosmetic reasons, or if you need it removed because it is in an area that is easily bumped, which can lead to regular bleeding. Common procedures for removing cherry angiomas include:

Electrocauterization

This surgical method of treatment involves burning the angioma by using an electric current delivered by a tiny probe. For this procedure, you will also have a grounding pad placed somewhere on your body to shield the rest of your body from the electricity.

Cryosurgery

This procedure involves freezing the angioma with liquid nitrogen, and the extreme cold will destroy it. This method is known for being a quick and relatively easy procedure. You only need one treatment session for cryosurgery to work, and the liquid nitrogen is usually sprayed for only about 10 seconds. The wound doesn’t require much care afterward, and there is a lower chance of infection compared to other types of surgeries.

Laser Surgery

This type of surgery involves using a pulsed dye laser (PDL) to get rid of the cherry angioma. The PDL is a concentrated yellow laser that gives off enough heat to destroy the lesion. This method is quick and is done as an outpatient procedure, which means you will not have to stay in the hospital overnight. Depending on how many angiomas you have, you may need between one and three treatment sessions. This surgery can cause slight bruising, which can last up to 10 days.

Shave Excision

This procedure involves slicing away at the angioma in thin layers until it’s gone. Shave excision is an alternative to invasive surgery that would involve cutting out the lesion or growth and using stitches or sutures to close the wound.
If you do have angiomas removed with any of these surgery types, scarring is uncommon

HEALTH BENEFITS OF WATERMELON

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Health benefits of Watermelon:
Rich in electrolytes and water content, melons are nature’s gift to beat tropical summer thirst.
Watermelons are very low in calories (just 30 calories per 100 g) and fats yet very rich source of numerous health promoting phyto-nutrients and anti-oxidants that are essential for optimum health.
Watermelon is an excellent source of Vitamin-A, which is a powerful natural anti-oxidant. 100 g fresh fruit provides 569 mg or 19% of daily-required levels of this vitamin. It is essential for vision and immunity. Vitamin-A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A is known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
It is also rich in anti-oxidant flavonoids like lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. These antioxidants are found to offer protection against colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Phyto-chemicals present in watermelon like lycopene and carotenoids have the ability to help protect cells and other structures in the body from oxygen-free radicals.
Watermelon is an excellent source of carotenoid pigment, lycopene and indeed, superior to raw red tomato. 100 g of fresh melon provides 4532 µg lycopene, whereas only 2573 µg in tomatoes. Studies suggest that lycopene offer certain protection to skin from harmful UV rays.
Watermelon fruit is a good source of potassium; Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure; It thus offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
Furthermore, it contains a good amount of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), thiamin (vitamin B-1), vitamin-C, and manganese. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Total measured antioxidant strength (ORAC value) of watermelon is 142 µmol TE/100 g.

DVT DISEASES

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Deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot that forms inside a vein, usually deep within your leg. About half a million Americans every year get one, and up to 100,000 die because of it. The danger is that part of the clot can break off and travel through your bloodstream. It could get stuck in your lungs and block blood flow, causing organ damage or death.Symptoms

Notice how the leg on the left here is swollen below the knee. That's a common symptom of DVT. So are redness and tenderness or pain in the area of the clot. But you won't always have these. Unfortunately, about half of people with DVT get no warning signs.
Pulmonary Embolism

This is a clot that moves into your lungs and blocks the blood supply. It can cause trouble breathing, low blood pressure, fainting, a faster heart rate, chest pain, and coughing up blood. If you have any of these, call 911 and get medical care right away.What Causes DVT?

Anything that damages the inner lining of a vein may cause DVT -- surgery, an injury, or your immune system. If your blood is thick or flows slowly, it's more likely to form a clot, especially in a vein that's already damaged. People who have certain genetic disorders or more estrogen in their system are more at risk for blood clots, too.



Monday, 15 May 2017

HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGOES

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Health benefits of Mangoes:
Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compounds.
According to new research study, mango fruit has been found to protect against colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. Several trial studies suggest that polyphenolic anti-oxidant compounds in mango are known to offer protection against breast and colon cancers.
Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. 100 g of fresh fruit provides 765 mg or 25% of recommended daily levels of vitamin A. Together; these compounds are known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Vitamin A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes is known to protect the body from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Fresh mango is a good source of potassium. 100 g fruit provides 156 mg of potassium while just 2 mg of sodium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
It is also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also controls homocystiene levels within the blood, which may otherwise be harmful to blood vessels resulting in CAD and stroke.
Further, it composes moderate amounts of copper. Copper is a co-factor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells.
Additionally, mango peel is also rich in phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants like carotenoids and polyphenols.

WNVI(WEST NILE FEVER) DISEASES

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mosquito bite can turn into something much more severe if you are infected with West Nile virus. Mosquitoes transmit this virus after they bite an infected bird and then bite a person. While not all people with infected mosquito bites will get the disease, it can be a very severe occurrence for those with weakened immune systems and the elderly. If it is diagnosed and treated quickly, the outlook for West Nile virus recovery is good, according to the National Institutes of Health.

What Are the Symptoms of West Nile Virus?

West Nile virus symptoms vary in severity. Severe symptoms occur in one out of 150 infected people, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Examples of severe symptoms include:
  • fever
  • confusion
  • convulsions
  • muscle weakness
  • vision loss
  • numbness
  • paralysis
  • comatose state
Mild forms of West Nile virus cause flu-like symptoms and may be confused with the flu. Mild symptoms include:
  • fever
  • headache
  • body aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • swollen lymph glands
  • rash on your chest, stomach, and/or back
Mild West Nile virus does not typically last as long as the severe form, which can last for several weeks. The severe form can cause permanent brain damage in rare cases. An estimated 80 percent of people an infected mosquito bites will not experience any symptoms at all. If you have West Nile virus, you will typically show the first virus symptoms within three to 14 days of being bitten, according to the CDC.

What Causes West Nile Virus?

Infected mosquitoes typically spread West Nile virus. The mosquito first bites an infected bird and then bites a human or other animal. In rare, isolated incidents, blood transfusions, organ transplants, breastfeeding, or pregnancy can transfer the virus and spread the illness. West Nile virus is not, however, spread by kissing or touching another person.

How Is West Nile Virus Treated?

Because a virus causes the condition, West Nile virus does not have a medical cure. However, you can take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen or aspirin, to relieve muscle aches and headaches that can accompany West Nile virus.
If you experience severe symptoms, such as brain swelling, your physician may give you intravenous fluids and medications to minimize potential infections.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF APPLE

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Health benefits of Apple:
Delicious and crunchy apple fruit is notable for its impressive list of phtyto-nutrients, and anti-oxidants. Studies suggest that its components are essential for normal growth, development and overall well-being.
Apples are low in calories; 100 g of fresh fruit slices provide only 50 calories. They, however, contain no saturated fats or cholesterol. Nonetheless, the fruit is rich in dietary fiber, which helps prevent absorption of dietary-LDL or bad cholesterol in the gut. The fiber also saves the colon mucous membrane from exposure to toxic substances by binding to cancer-causing chemicals inside the colon.
Apples are rich in antioxidant phyto-nutrients flavonoids and polyphenolics. The total measured anti-oxidant strength (ORAC value) of 100 g apple fruit is 5900 TE. Some of the important flavonoids in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Additionally, they are also good in tartaric acid that gives tart flavor to them. Altogether, these compounds help the body protect from deleterious effects of free radicals.
Apple fruit contains good quantities of vitamin-C and beta-carotene. Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
Further, apple fruit is a good source of B-complex vitamins such as riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Together these vitamins help as co-factors for enzymes in metabolism as well as in various synthetic functions inside the body.
Apple also contains a small amount of minerals like potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure; thus, counters the bad influences of sodium.